Province : İzmir.
Population : 14.604
Field: 71.38 km2
It has been declared by the council of minister’s decision numbered 90/1117 and dated 22.10.1990.
Foça Special Environmental Protection Area is composed of Foca County, province of İzmir. Foca, is one of 28 counties in Izmir Province in the Aegean Region. In the West the Bay of Izmir, in the east Menemen County, in the north residential area surrounded by the Gulf of Çandarlı is about 70 km away to Izmir. Foca Special Environmental Protection Area covers an area of 227 km2.
There are 5 villages and 1 sub district of Foça. Foça Peninsula has a coast covered with small and large bays.Altough there is not very high mountains in the area, the highest mountain is Dumanli Mountain(1098 m), the other mountains are ; Şaphane Mountain (416m), Fula Mountain (200m), Kapıkaya, Kızıldağ and Değirmentaşı Mountain. The major plains of the county are Ilıpınar, Gencelli, Gerenköy, Bağarası and Yenibağara plains.The most important river of the county is Gediz River which borders Menemen County and Kışla Stream which is one of the important branches of the river.
Foça Peninsula has a coast covered with small and large bays.These bays display a natural beauty with the harmony of green and blue. Nonresidential Peninsulas on the coast of Foca (British and Fener Promontory) are under protection because of their importance for Foca’s silhouette and environmental values. İncir, Fener, Eşşek, Hayırsız, Orak islands and Siren Rocks also adorn these bays. In Foça, archeological nature and architectural values are located together which are important as historical and cultural richness for mythology. That is the reason why Foca is a residential area which is unspoiled and showing less constructions compared to other coastal towns.
. The importance of this region stems from seals that have been living here for thousands years and town was named after them. Monachus monachus (Mediterranean monk seal), there are approximately 400 in the world today and it is among the species which are endangered. It is estimated that in Turkey coasts there are less than 100 seals.
Siren Rocks cover west coast of Orak Island has a vital importance for the caves used by seals to breed. The coasts of this region are known to be most proper habitants for the seals because of their rich fish stocks and sandbanks. Foça Special Environmental Protected Area was chosen as a pilot project area of the National Seal Committee under the coordination of the Ministry of Environment.
The region is under the influence of a typical Mediterranean climate. Winters are mild and rainy and summers are dry and hot. Approximately 50% of Foça is covered with red pine forests. The flora is mainly composed of maquis. Mostly the species such as pigs, wolves, jackals, foxes, martens, partridges, turtle doves, and quail are living here in the forest. Delta of Gediz is a stopover place for migratory birds and rich in fish species. In winter and autumn there is plenty of wild geese here.
Since Foça Peninsula has a coastline covered with small and large bays from Aliağa County till the place where Gediz River flows into the sea, it is pretty lucky in terms of sea products. Therefore, the fishing has been a sector for long years in the history of Foca. The species such as sea bream (Sparus auratus) catched from the sea, sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), bream (Pagellus mormyrus), gray mullet (Mugil sp.), Whiting (Merlangius merlangus), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus) etc. are means of life for many families.
Foça County is located on the 1st degree earthquake zone. Although the county has a hilly terrain consisting of a volcanic structure, due to the alluvial delta that was created by Gediz River, it has a wide plain. In topographically point of view, Settlement in Foça which connects to the sea like a bowl-shaped, located in areas where the topography is the least inclined. The presence of the military and the protected areas on the inclined areas prevents settlement from moving forward in a negative way in terms of urban silhouette. Some of the areas on east of the city consist of olive groves and most of these areas are 1. and 2. degree natural protected areas.
Foça has 3000 years old history based on documents. The region had the name of “Phocaea” in ancient times and was one of the most important Ionian settlements. The basics of today’s western civilization were laid in Ionia. In Foça there are many historical and touristic remains from civilizations of Ion, Persian, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman. Some of these are : Stone House (a tomb built in the 4th century BC), the ancient city of Kyme, Dışkale (There are Turkish bath ruins in the interior, made in 1678), Ağalar Mansion(Atatürk was hosted in this mansion dating from the 19th century), Devil’s Bath (a family grave built in ancient times), Walls and Beşkapılar (remained from the Middle Ages), Fatih Mosque (1455), the Ottoman Cemetery (1520-1566), Hafız Süleyman Mosque.
Foca was a ceramic center in ancient times.
The remains of pottery found in the archaeological excavations, especially from the Greek and Roman times proved that ceramic is a traditional art for this region.